The history of Islam isn’t actually the history of its rulers. it isn’t the history of wars, of conquest and defeats. Islamic culture and society down the ages has also been fashioned through valuable contributions from its lay faithful. Muslim scholars laid the inspiration stone for the corpus of the fashionable world’s knowledge. Muslim scientists made valuable contributions to science. Muslim astronomers calculated the earth’s dimensions to an astounding degree of accuracy—at a time when the remainder of the planet thought our planet was flat. And Muslim spiritualists attracted people from across the world to their religion with their zeal, courage of conviction and clarity of thought.